Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Oncology: Nivolumab (Opdivo)

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Tumour cells harness multiple resistance mechanisms to evade the host-tumour immune system. Notably, the programmed death 1 (PD1) receptor and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, play critical roles in T-cell suppression and exhaustion. Overexpression of PD-L1 and PD1 on tumour cells and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes . . .

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