Coffee isn’t just your typical wake-me-up beverage.
A recent study revealed that it provides a unique cognitive boost that surpasses what can be achieved with caffeine alone.
Researchers from the University of Minho in Portugal, amongst others, set out to investigate the effects of coffee consumption, seeking to determine whether the increase in alertness commonly attributed to coffee was solely a result of its caffeine content.
Their findings, published in the journal Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, suggest a more complex relationship between the popular beverage and the brain.
Delving Deeper into Coffee’s Effects on the Brain
There’s no denying the fascination people have for coffee; it’s not just about the stimulating perk-up in the morning or the warmth that it brings to a chilly day. Coffee, it seems, is more than just its primary component—caffeine.
Working memory, on the other hand, is a well-established cognitive process that is crucial to our daily functioning. It is our ability to store and manipulate information over short periods, a skill used in tasks as simple as remembering a phone number to more complex activities like problem-solving. When coffee intake enhances connectivity in the brain networks associated with working memory, it suggests the possibility of more efficient cognitive processing and improved performance in related tasks.
Furthermore, cognitive control—our capacity to control our thoughts and actions in line with our goals—is another sphere that coffee seems to impact positively. This might mean improved focus, greater attention to detail, and a better ability to regulate impulsive responses. The underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered, but what is clear is that it seems to do more than just wake us up; it may help us stay on task and be more productive too.
Finally, coffee’s role in enhancing goal-directed behaviour is perhaps the most intriguing of all. This brain function helps us make conscious decisions about our actions, balancing reward and effort to achieve our objectives.
If coffee can truly enhance this network, it could mean a heightened ability to strategise, prioritise, and follow through with plans, thereby potentially boosting our overall productivity.
Caffeine vs. Coffee: A Comparative Study
To conduct their study, the scientists recruited participants who consumed at least one cup per day. These individuals were instructed to abstain from consuming any caffeine for three hours prior to the study.
Outcome of the study
A recent study explored the impact of coffee on brain connectivity. This study involved 47 habitual coffee drinkers. Their average age was 30 years. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used for analysis. The technique studied brain activity before and after consumption.
The findings were interesting. Coffee consumption affected different brain networks distinctly. Post intake, connectivity within certain networks increased. These were the higher visual network and the right executive control network.
These networks play key roles in our brain. They manage visual processing and higher cognitive functions. There was an increase in connectivity with the left middle occipital gyrus. Connectivity also increased within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This occurred in the right executive control network.
Interestingly, these effects were unique to coffee. Caffeine alone didn’t replicate the effects. Another group was included in the study. They consumed caffeine in hot water, sans coffee. This group didn’t display similar brain connectivity changes.
These results reveal the complex influence of coffee on the brain. However, the study had some limitations. It lacked a control group of non-coffee drinkers. The effects of coffee on task-related brain activity weren’t studied.
Beyond the Beans
One caveat to these findings is the study’s inability to determine whether the benefits coffee drinkers claim could be related to relief from caffeine withdrawal symptoms. Additionally, the distinct smell and taste of coffee or the psychological expectation of its effects may also play roles in the observed benefits.
Ultimately, while coffee and other caffeinated beverages share some common effects, coffee appears to offer unique cognitive benefits, making it more than just a simple caffeine delivery system.
- Picó-Pérez, M., Magalhães, R., Esteves, M., Vieira, R., Castanho, T. C., Amorim, L., Sousa, M., Coelho, A., Moreira, P. S., Cunha, R. A., & Sousa, N. (2023, May 11). Coffee consumption decreases the connectivity of the posterior Default Mode Network (DMN) at rest. Frontiers. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2023.1176382
- Habitual coffee drinkers display a distinct pattern of brain functional connectivity – PubMed. (2021, November 1). PubMed. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01075-4
- Sherman, S. M., Buckley, T. P., Baena, E., & Ryan, L. (2016, October 26). Caffeine Enhances Memory Performance in Young Adults during Their Non-optimal Time of Day. Frontiers. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01764
- Shukitt-Hale, B., Miller, M. G., Chu, Y. F., Lyle, B. J., & Joseph, J. A. (2013, January 24). Coffee, but not caffeine, has positive effects on cognition and psychomotor behavior in aging. PubMed Central (PMC). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-012-9509-4