Fear Influences Reward Choices Differently in Women and Men, Study Finds

The interplay between emotion and decision-making reveals a complex landscape where our choices are significantly swayed by how we feel. 

A landmark study focusing on gender differences in decision-making under fear, conducted by Eleonora Fiorenzato, Patrizia Bisiacchi, and Giorgia Cona, and featured in PLOS ONE, sheds light on this intricate dynamic. This research uniquely highlights how fear can lead women and men to diverge in their decision-making processes, particularly in scenarios involving delay discounting. Through a detailed exploration, the study uncovers that under the influence of fear, women are more likely to opt for immediate, smaller rewards, in contrast to men, showcasing a critical gender disparity in response to emotional stimuli.

Fear and Choices Between Immediate and Future Rewards

The study embarked on a journey to understand how fear sways decision-making differently between genders. Utilising an engaging method, 308 volunteers were first led through an emotional journey with movie clips designed to invoke fear, joy, or a neutral state. This emotional setup laid the groundwork for the core investigation: how these induced feelings influence one’s inclination towards immediate rewards as opposed to waiting for bigger gains in the future.

Post-emotion induction, the participants’ decision-making strategies were tested through a series of hypothetical scenarios. They were asked to choose between a smaller sum of money available immediately and a larger sum available at a later date—a method known as delay discounting. Notably, the findings shed light on a significant divergence: women under the influence of fear consistently displayed a stronger preference for smaller, immediate rewards over larger, delayed ones. This tendency starkly contrasted with both men’s responses under fear and women’s choices when not influenced by fear. The study meticulously illustrates how gender differences in decision-making under fear are pronounced, offering profound insights into the emotional underpinnings of our choices.

Gender-Specific Emotional Responses and Decision-Making

This gender-based variance in decision-making under fear prompts a deeper exploration. Why do women lean towards immediacy under stress, unlike men? The study posits evolutionary and psychological explanations. It suggests that women’s heightened preference for immediate rewards might stem from ancient survival strategies. These strategies prioritise immediate safety and resources, especially in threatening situations. 

On the other hand, men’s decision-making seems less swayed by emotional states, possibly reflecting a different evolutionary pressure to assess risks and opportunities over the long term.

Furthermore, the study explores emotion regulation as a potential factor. Women and men might manage their fear differently, affecting their choices. Women’s inclination towards immediate rewards could also be seen as a coping mechanism to mitigate fear. Men, conversely, might process fear without letting it significantly alter their preference for delayed rewards. This distinction not only highlights gender differences in coping with fear but also suggests that these differences could have deep-rooted biological and psychological origins.

The Broader Implications of Understanding Fear’s Role in Decision-Making

Grasping how fear influences gender-specific decision-making carries wide-ranging implications. For sectors like financial planning, marketing, and mental health, acknowledging these differences is crucial. It aids in tailoring approaches that consider the unique ways men and women make decisions under emotional duress. 

For instance, financial advisors might develop gender-sensitive strategies to support clients in overcoming fear-driven impulses. Similarly, in mental health, understanding these dynamics can enhance therapeutic interventions focused on emotional regulation and decision-making.

Beyond immediate applications, this research invites further inquiry into how other emotions affect decision-making across genders. Future studies could enrich our understanding by examining a broader spectrum of emotions and real-world decision contexts. This exploration is vital for developing more nuanced models of decision-making that encompass the full complexity of human emotions and gender. By delving into these aspects, we can better navigate the challenges posed by emotional influences on our choices. This may lead to more informed and balanced decision-making processes.

Towards Inclusive Decision-Making Models: Embracing Complexity

The findings from this study underscore the need for more inclusive decision-making models that account for gender differences and emotional influences. Recognizing that fear can lead to divergent decision-making paths for men and women is a step towards more empathetic and effective decision support systems. Whether in personal finance, healthcare, or daily life choices, incorporating these insights can lead to strategies that better accommodate the diverse ways individuals respond to emotional stimuli.


  1. Fiorenzato, E., Bisiacchi, P., & Cona, G. (2024, March 20). Gender differences in the effects of emotion induction on intertemporal decision-making. PLOS ONE, 19(3), e0299591.
  2. Fear may lead women and men to make different decisions when choosing short-VS-long-term rewards. (2024, March 24). ScienceDaily.

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